Torque

Neural network models of peak temperature, torque, traverse force, bending stress and maximum shear stress during friction stir welding

Tool and workpiece temperatures, torque, traverse force and stresses on the tools are affected by friction stir welding (FSW) variables such as plate thickness, welding speed, tool rotational speed, shoulder and pin diameters, pin length and tool …

Tool geometry for friction stir welding – optimum shoulder diameter

The most important geometric parameter in the friction stir welding (FSW) tool design is the shoulder diameter, which is currently estimated by trial and error. Here, we report a combined experimental and theoretical investigation on the influence of …

Back of the envelope calculations in friction stir welding – velocities, peak temperature, torque, and hardness

Given the complexity and resource requirements of numerical models of friction stir welding (FSW), well-tested analytical models of materials flow, peak temperatures, torque, and weld properties are needed. Here an approximate analytical technique …