Hardness

Effect of Tool Shoulder Diameter on the Surface Hardness of Aluminum-Molybdenum Surface Composites Developed by Single and Double Groove Friction Stir Processing

Molybdenum (Mo), possessing higher hardness compared to aluminum (Al), is used for the surface hardness improvement in Al 1050 alloy. Al-Mo surface composites are developed using friction stir processing with different tool shoulder diameters. Single …

Back of the envelope calculations in friction stir welding – velocities, peak temperature, torque, and hardness

Given the complexity and resource requirements of numerical models of friction stir welding (FSW), well-tested analytical models of materials flow, peak temperatures, torque, and weld properties are needed. Here an approximate analytical technique …